The Public Voice in Electronic Commerce
La place du citoyen dans le commerce électronique

OECD  Paris - October 11th, 1999
OCDE  Paris - 11 octobre 1999

About the speakers
À propos des intervenants

Phil Agre

Philip E. Agre is an associate professor of information studies at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He received his PhD in computer science from MIT in 1989, having conducted dissertation research in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory on computational models of improvised activities. He taught at the University of Chicago, the University of Sussex, and UC San Diego before arriving at UCLA in 1998.

He is the author of "Computation and Human Experience" (Cambridge University Press, 1997), and the coeditor of "Technology and Privacy: The New Landscape" (with Marc Rotenberg, MIT Press, 1997), "Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Studies in Computing as a Social Practice" (with Douglas Schuler, Ablex, 1997), and "Computational Theories of Interaction and Agency" (with Stanley J. Rosenschein, MIT Press, 1996).

In addition, he edits an Internet mailing list called the Red Rock Eater News Service that distributes useful information on the social and political aspects of networking and computing to 4000 people in 60 countries.

Theresa Amato

Theresa Amato is the founder and executive director of the Citizen Advocacy Center, a nonprofit organization dedicated to building democracy for the 21st century by strengthening the public's capacities, resources, and institutions for self-governance.

Ms. Amato was formerly the director of Ralph Nader's Freedom of Information Clearinghouse, where she started the Global Access to Information Project. She has also previously worked as a litigator with the Public Citizen Litigation Group, a consultant for the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and a federal law clerk in Manhattan. She follows Internet governance issues with the Consumer Project on Technology.

Ms. Amato graduated with honors from Harvard/Radcliffe in 1986 with a degree in government and economics, and from the New York University School of Law in 1989. She is licensed to practice law in New York, Illinois, and Washington, D.C.

Joël d'Angio

Joël d'Angio, né le 23 septembre 1939 à Castelnaudary (Aude) Licencié ès Lettres Chef de Service Régional de la Concurrence, de la Consommation et de la Répression des Fraudes,.Chargé de mission pour le commerce électronique à la Direction Générale de la Concurrence de la Consommation et de la Répression des Fraudes depuis septembre 1997.

Entré à la Direction Générale des Prix et des Enquêtes Économiques en 1963, M. d'Angio a successivement occupé le fonctions de :

Conseiller Technique auprès du Ministre du Commerce et de l'Artisanat (1981-1983), Directeur Adjoint de l'Office Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des Légumes et de l'Horticulture (ONIFLHOR), (1984-1993) Directeur Adjoint de la Semmaris, société gestionnaire du Marché de RUNGIS (1993-1994) Chargé de mission auprès du Haut Fonctionnaire de Défense du Ministère de l'Économie et des Finances (1995-1997)

Dave Banisar

David Banisar is an attorney and writer in the Washington, D.C. area specializing in communications, privacy, free speech and freedom of information law.

As a Senior Fellow for the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Mr. Banisar works on privacy related issues including international developments, encryption, wiretapping, and new surveillance technologies. He also co-wrote the annual EPIC/PI "Privacy and Human Rights" survey of privacy, data protection, surveillance and freedom of information laws around the world and also worked on the "Cryptography and Liberty" survey on encryption policy. He was one of the founders of EPIC and was a Staff Counsel and Policy Director from 1994 until April 1999.

David Banisar is also Deputy Director of Privacy International, an international human rights group based in London, UK. Previously, he worked for Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility as a policy analyst and the Prince George's County, MD Public Defenders' Office as a law clerk.

Alain Baron

Caspar Bowden

Caspar Bowden is director of the Foundation for Information Policy Research (FIPR), an independent non-profit organisation based in London which studies the interaction between information technology and society, identifies technical developments with significant social impact, and commissions research into public policy alternatives.

Co-organiser of the Scrambling for Safety public conferences on UK cryptography policy, he was formerly an e-commerce and Internet security consultant, senior researcher of an option-arbitrage trading firm, a financial strategist with Goldman Sachs, and chief algorithm designer for a virtual reality software house.

FIPR monitors issues affecting civil rights and privacy, freedom of expression, democratic governance, the accountability and efficiency of public administration, and social cohesion. The Foundation is funded from donations by individual and corporate sponsors. However, sponsors have no influence over general or specific policy; independence is guaranteed by a board of trustees who take advice on policy and strategy from an Advisory Council of experts.

Anne Carblanc

Anne Carblanc is the Principal Administrator in the Information Computer and Communications Policy Division of the OECD where she has been responsible for policy issues concerning the protection of personal data and privacy since 1997.

She was previously a judge in charge of criminal investigations (juge d'instruction) at the Tribunal of Paris. From 1992 to 1996 she was Secretary General of the CNIL, the French data protection authority, and from 1985 to 1992 Head of the Criminal Legislative unit in the Ministry of Justice. From 1983 to 1985, she was a "juge d'instruction" at the Tribunal of Orléans. Anne Carblanc has a degree in modern languages and literature and a Master's degree in Law. She is also a graduate (Promotion 1981) of the "Ecole Nationale de la Magistrature".

Yves Cochet

Tracy Cohen

Tracy Cohen is a senior lecturer at the LINK Centre, Graduate School of Public and Development Management, Wits University, Johannesburg. LINK is a broadcasting and telecommunications research and training centre based at the University which runs courses for both the public and private sector.

In addition, Ms Cohen teaches courses in Telecommunications Law at the Wits Law School. Ms Cohen is also a regulatory advisor to the Internet Service Provider's Association. Prior to joining LINK, Ms Cohen was an Assistant to Council at the South Africa Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA). Ms Cohen has a Masters in Law (LLM) focussing on the regulation of content on the Internet.

John Dryden

John Dryden has been the Head of the Information, Computer and Communications Policy Division of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry since January 1993. He joined the Directorate in 1987, and has held a number of other senior positions, including Head of the Science, Technology and Communications Policy Division, Head of the Economic Analysis and Statistics Division, and Head of the Scientific, Technological and Industrial Indicators Division. Between 1980 and 1987, Mr. Dryden worked in the Economics and Statistics Department of the OECD.

Before joining the OECD, he worked in the Cabinet Office of the U.K. government. A United Kingdom citizen, Mr. Dryden was educated at Oxford University and the University of Wales.

Georg Erber

Georg Erber is a Research officer at the Department of Industry and Technology, German Institute for Economic Research. He has been Research Associate and Lecturer at the Economics Department of the Free University of Berlin. He was also an Assistant Professor in Statistics and Econometrics and Visiting Professor at Thammasat University of Bangkok, Thailand, Zheijiang University of Hangzhou, PRCh, and Counsellor at the National Planning Institute, Lima, Peru, Lecutrer at the École National d'administration et de Gestion, Vientiane, Lao PR.

His principal fields of interest are -- besides Electronic Commerce and Network Economics -- industrial organization, macroeconomic theory and policy, technological change and unemployment, growth and structural change, and econometrics.

He has published a number of books and research reports including: Catching-Up or Falling Behind, Relative Differences in Productivity and Price Competitiveness between U.S: and German Industries, 1960-1985, Future Pespectives of Germany in International Competition: Implications of the New Growth Theories for Industrial Policy, (in German with H. Hagemann and S. Seiter, physica, Heidelberg, 1998), Credibility: measurement and impacts, Central bank experience and Euro-perpsectives, (with H. Hagemann in: The Political Economy of Central Banking, ed. by P. Arestis and M. Sawyer), Edward Elgar, 1998, Electronic Commerce, Opportunities and Risks of Global Electronic Business Transactions, (with Stefan Bach in: Economic Bulletin, 4/99;

Angelo Gennari

Angelo Gennari, Roma, 26.10.1938 (single).

Presently, Chief, Studies and Research Department, CISL [1] (since 1991)
From 1983 to 1991: Chief, International Department, CISL
From 1979 to 1983: worked in the International Department, CISL
From 1975 to 1979: member of ACLI [2] National Secretariat and Editor of their weekly magazine, Azione Sociale
From 1972 to 1975: Editor-in-chief of the COINES publishing company, Rome
1973: Chief, Studies Office, ACLI
From 1968 to 1972: Chief, International Office, ACLI
From 1958 to 1966: employed by the US Embassy Rome, MAAG (Military Assistance Advisory Group)

University Degrees:
Economics and Political Sciences, Rome.
PhD Economics, Yale.

Published: more than 150 papers, articles, etc. Four books (history, and history of economics).

[1] CISL: Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori (Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions, @ 4 million members.
[2] ACLI: Associazioni Cristiane Lavoratori Italiani (Italian Associations of Christian Workers), then @ 1 million members.

Marie Georges

Eric Goldstein

Eric Goldstein is the deputy director for the Middle East and North Africa at Human Rights Watch. He devotes most of his time to monitoring North Africa.

He also researched and authored a Human Rights Watch report on Internet censorship and free expression throughout the region, published in July.

Dirk Klasen

Wibo Koole

Wibo Koole is head of the Consumer Policy Department of Consumentenbond, a Dutch consumers organization with over 650.000 members. The Consumentenbond's mission is to enable consumers to make easier and better choices with respect to man and environment. Its main campaigning areas are health, food, and the information society (e-commerce, internet, telecommunications, broadcasting).

The Consumer Policy Unit organizes campaigning and lobbying activities towards producers, producers organizations and government nationally and internationally. Consumentenbond is an active member of BEUC, the Brussels based European lobbying organisation of consumers.

Mr. Koole is a member of the Consumer Committe of the Dutch Sociaal-Economisch Council (the official government advisory board on economic affairs) and of the Consumer Committee of the European Union. He is a political scientist by education and worked as an assistant professor at the Nijmegen University and as a management consultant.

Pippa Lawson

Philippa Lawson has been practising administrative law and consumer advocacy with the Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC) in Ottawa since her call to the Ontario Bar in 1991. She has a Master's degree from the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (1986) and a Law degree from Queen's University (1989).

Ms. Lawson has led consumer interventions in all major telecommunications proceedings before the Canadian regulator since 1990, and has actively participated in industry working groups to design rules and procedures for the implementation of local competition in Canada. She has also acted for consumer groups in regulatory matters before the Ontario Energy Board, and has represented various public interest parties before the Federal and Supreme Courts of Canada on matters ranging from the abandonment of railway lines to voting rights.

She is a member of the Canadian Standards Association Technical Committee on Privacy, which developed CAN/CSA-Q830-96, The Model Code for the Protection of Personal Information, and was recently appointed to the Standards Council of Canada's Consumer and Public Interest Committee, as well as its Advisory Committee on Standards.

Pippa Lawson was also a member of the Canadian delegation to the 1998 OECD Ministerial on Electronic Commerce, and is actively involved in various public and private initiatives to improve consumer privacy and consumer protection in the evolving marketplace.

Serge Leroux

Meryem Marzouki

Meryem Marzouki is a senior researcher in Microelectronics with the French National Public Research Center (CNRS).

As part of her volunteering activities, she co-founded the first French organization of Internet users, the 'Association des Utilisateurs d'Internet,' AUI, in February 1996. She was AUI President from this time to September 1997, when she resigned to co-found another French NGO named 'Imaginons un réseau Internet solidaire' (IRIS).

IRIS' primary objectives are the promotion of a public service infrastructure for permanent connectivity to the Internet, the action in favor of Free speech and privacy, and the promotion of a non-commercial Internet. IRIS is a member of the Global Internet Liberty Campaign. IRIS is leading the organization of the annual French Meeting of Non-Commercial Internet and Actions showing Solidarity.

More details can be found on Meryem Marzouki's Homepage.

Jim Murray

Jim Murray was the Director of Consumer Affairs and Fair Trade in Ireland from 1979 to 1990, responsible, inter alia, for the implementation of a wide range of consumer protection and competition laws, including laws on misleading advertising, food labelling, product safety and restrictive business practices.

Prior to that he was, for seven years, the Director of the National Social Service Council (now the National Social Service Board), a public organisation which pioneered the development of a network of voluntary community information centres in Ireland.

His first job was as an engineer/manager in the Irish telephone administration (Department of Posts and Telegraphs).

Mr Murray is a qualified lawyer (Barrister at Law) and has a degree in Physics and Mathematics. He is also the holder of a Post Graduate Diploma in European Law.

In June 1990, Mr Murray took up the post of Director of BEUC, the Bureau Européen des Unions de Consommateurs. BEUC is a Brussels-based organisation representing the independent consumer associations from the fifteen Member States of the EU and elsewhere in Europe. The primary task of BEUC is to promote the interests of the consumer at all levels of the EU, to act as a strong consumer voice in Brussels and to try to ensure that the interests of the consumers are given their proper weight in the development of all Community policies. BEUC seeks to influence all EU policies which may affect consumers including policies relating to food, agriculture, environment, competition, single market, trade, financial services, legal interests, health, safety etc.

Jytte Olgaard

Jytte Olgaard is a lawyer by profession and graduated from law school at the Universtity of Copenhagen, in 1971.

She joined the Ministry of Business and Industry in 1971 and has worked there for more than 25 years &endash; with a leave of absence for two years from 1979 to 1981 where she was employed as a credit analyst in the international division of an American bank, Mercantile Bank, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Ms. Olgaard has been engaged in a number of different policy areas such as the Export Credit Council, stock exchange legislation, insurance law, book keeping regulation, tourism, a number of sectoral business areas like qualifying requirements for certified accountants, stock exchange brokers, hotel and restaurants, interpreters and requirements for performing business in general and administration i.e. budget and human ressources development.

Over the years, she has also been the chairperson of a number of committees whose tasks have been to prepare legislation for Parliament. In these committees, there are representatives from the major business organisations and from other ministries with related interests. Since Denmark joined the EC in 1973. Ms. Olgaard has participated in meetings in Bruxelles preparing for directives and other kinds of EU-regulation both in the Council and the Commission. She was also the chairperson for a Council Committe preparing for EU legislation for stock exchange prospectives during the Danish presidency in the 1980s.

Since 1991, Jytte Olgaard has been engaged in consumer policy matters, and in September 1995 joined the Danish National Consumer Agency.

Andy Oram

Andy Oram is a member of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, writing position papers for them and moderating the Cyber-Rights mailing list dedicated to free speech, privacy, and universal access. He works as an editor for technical publisher O'Reilly & Associates, specializing currently in programming and Open Source technologies.

Philippe Quéau

Director of Information and Informatics Division, UNESCO Diplomed Engineer from Ecole Polytechnique (Paris). Diplomed Engineer from Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications (Paris). Diplomed (D.E.A.) in Sciences of Information and Communication from Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris).

Philippe Quéau is a specialist of information and communication technologies (ICT), with a particular interest in computer graphics, virtual reality, televirtuality and cyber-communities. He founded the Image Research Group of the French National Audiovisual Institute (INA), and the INA's MediaPort, giving on-line access to numerous audiovisual data, sounds, images from French public television archives. Philippe Quéau has been regularly called for expertise on behalf of the European Communities Commission. He was until 1998 a member of the Research Council of the French Ministry of Culture. Since 1996, he has been the Director of Information and Informatics Division, at UNESCO.

Philippe Quéau wrote three books analysing the technical evolution and artistic implications of computer imaging, artificial intelligence and virtual reality :
- ELOGE DE LA SIMULATION - De la vie des langages à la synthèse des images - Ed. Champ Vallon/INA - 1986
- METAXU : Théorie de l'Art Intermédiaire - Ed. Champ Vallon/INA - 1989
- LE VIRTUEL - Vertus et vertiges - Ed. Champ Vallon/INA - 1993 .

He participated in a dozen of collective books, the last published being:
-Megamaschine Wissen- 1999- Editions Campus. Frankfurt/Main-New York -Art @ Science- 1998- Editions Springer. New York
-Cyberworlds- 1998- Editions Springer- Tokyo
-The Treasure of Computer Graphics- 1998- Editions Justsystem- Tokyo

Marc Rotenberg

Marc Rotenberg is Director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) in Washington, DC. He teaches information privacy law at Georgetown University Law Center and has testified before Congress on many issues, including access to information, encryption policy, computer security, and communications privacy.

He debated Senator Exon on CNN when the Communications Decency Act was introduced and FBI Director Sessions on ABC Nightline when the FBI wiretap bill was proposed. He helped organize grassroots campaigns against Lotus Marketplace and the Clipper encryption scheme, and is now coordinating the Global Internet Liberty Campaign.

He is editor of both the 1998 and the 1999 Privacy Law Sourcebook and co-editor (with Phil Agre) of Technology and Privacy: The New Landscape (MIT Press 1998).

He is a graduate of Harvard University and Stanford Law School.

Herwig Schlögl

Roland Schneider

Andrew Shapiro

Andrew L. Shapiro is a writer, lawyer, and consultant with a particular interest in the impact of new technologies such as the Internet. Shapiro is director of the Aspen Institute Internet Policy Project, First Amendment Fellow at the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School, and a Senior Advisor to the Markle Foundation.

Shapiro has been a fellow of Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet & Society since September 1997 and was in residence there for the first half of 1998.

Shapiro graduated in 1990 from Brown University, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and in 1995 from Yale Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of The Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, a senior editor of The Yale Law Journal, and a co-director of the Lowenstein Human Rights Project. He served as a law clerk to Judge Pierre N. Leval of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and was admitted to the New York State bar in 1996. His legal experience includes arguing a voting rights case in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

He is also the author of "The Control Revolution".

Robert Shaw

Robert Shaw has had a 17 year career leading the design, development, and management of advanced information and telecommunications technology for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is an international treaty organization specializing in global telecommunications coordination, standards, and development. He is the senior Internet Strategy and Policy Advisor at the ITU in the office of the Strategic Planning Unit.

Mr. Shaw is an invited expert speaker at numerous international Internet and telecommunications conferences. He has a Masters degree in Telecommunications from the Technical University of Delft, Holland.

Alain Weber

Alain Weber has been an avocat à la Cour (lawyer), since 1984. He is also a partner of the law firm of SCP Henri LeClerc & Associates. He specialises in Intellectual property Law.

M. Weber is also President of the "Commission Informatique et liberté" of the Human rights League (Ligue des droits de l'homme).

Joël S. Yudken

Dr. Yudken is Sectoral Economist and Technology Policy Analyst at the Public Policy Department, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) in Washington, D.C. His work focuses on developing labor-based industrial strategies in response to technological and economic change. In 1999, he was appointed to the National Research Council's Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. In 1997, he served as Senior Advisor on Modernization and Workforce Development at the National Institute for Standards and Technology's Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), as a designee of the AFL-CIO. At MEP, he worked with the workforce development team on technology, modernization and workforce issues involving small manufacturers, with an emphasis on unionized firms. At the Work and Technology Institute (WTI), in Washington, DC, where he was a Senior Fellow from 1995-1997, Dr. Yudken coordinated a team studying and developing strategies for high performance labor-management networks, and directed WTI's Labor Participation in Workplace Modernization project sponsored by NIST MEP.

Dr. Yudken was formerly Professional Staff Member, Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, responsible for economic development, defense conversion and technology commercialization issues. In 1993, he was an American Association for the Advancement of Science Congressional Science & Engineering Fellow in the Office of U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA). Prior to that, he was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Project on Regional and Industrial Economics, Rutgers University, where he coauthored with Ann Markusen Dismantling the Cold War Economy (Basic Books, 1992), and a Postdoctoral Fellow in the National Science Foundation Program on Science, Technology and Society. In the late 1980s, he directed, the Association for Computing Machinery-sponsored Project on Funding Policy in Computer Science. From 1979-1986 he served as Director for Programs at the Center for Economic Conversion in California. In earlier years, Dr. Yudken worked as an electronics engineer in the aerospace industry.

Over his career, he has written, spoken and consulted extensively on science, technology and industrial policy, technology and workplace change, economic development, and defense conversion. He is co-author of Making Changing Happen, Six Cases of Unions and Companies Transforming Their Workplaces (WTI, 1996) and Smart Workers, Smart Machines: A Technology Policy for the 21st Century (WTI, 1996). His articles have appeared in Issues in Science and Technology, WorkingUSA, Technology Review, Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, World Policy Journal, Business and Society Review, and The Entrepreneurial Economy.

He holds a Bachelors in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a Masters of Science in engineering-economic systems and Ph.D. in technology and society from Stanford University.

(last updated on : 18/12/2004 : dernière mise à jour)